1. The effects in skin tissues:
CMT effects firstly act on the skin. Promoting local blood circulation, improving cutaneous respiration, ameliorating the functions of sebaceous and sweat glands and inducing the production of certain histamine-like substances within the skin tissues, it may help to dilate capillaries, improve nutrition of the skin and nerve endings, enhance elasticity and lustre of the skin and slightly raise its temperature. CMT maneuvers can either increase sensitivity of skin or relieve its hypersensitive pain.
2. The effects in muscular tissues:
Relaxing muscles, eliminating acidic matter and relieving muscular fatigue, it can open more capillaries, increase volume of blood flow, and decrease viscosity of muscles, lower down circulatory resistance and blood pressure. Improving nutrition of the muscles and enhancing its tension, will bring satisfactory results for muscular atrophy.
3. The effects in periosteum, tendon, ligament and joint:
There are abundant nerve endings existing in the periosteum, the origin or insertion of tendon, ligament and joint which are highly sensitive to pain. Applying CMT maneuvers on them may not only promote blood circulation and repair of the tissues, but also enhance the pain threshold. In addition, the relaxation of ligament and joint capsule can increase mobility of the joint. Malposition and dislocation of the spinal vertebral facet joint can be corrected by CMT maneuvers.
4. The effects on the nervous system:
Removing adhesion and promoting the metabolism of local nerve tissues, CMT can also act on various systems of the entire body through reflex regulation of the nervous system. In clinical practice, the frequency and intensity of CMT maneuvers are related to their therapeutic effects. Constant, slow and gentle maneuvers may excite the peripheral nerve, but inhibit the central nervous system; Rapid, heavy manipulations for a short duration may inhibit the peripheral nerve and excite the central nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system is excited along with the excitation of the central nervous system, while an inhibition of the central nervous system brings about an excitement of the parasympathetic nerve. This phenomenon can be used for CMT treatment in many diseases.
5. The effects on gastrointestinal functions:
The abdomen is a soft cavity, using TCM method in the same rhythm with the gastrointestinal peristalsis may promote secretion of digestive glands and improve other functions of the digestive system. Moreover, manipulations on certain points may possess "biphasic actions" for regulating either hyper or hypo function.
6. The effects on circulatory system:
CMT can promote blood circulation and improve cardiac functions. When we apply manipulative treatment, the stimulation may aid in the venous return, dilate peripheral vessels, open more capillaries, lower the resistance of systemic circulation, and regulate the volume and distribution of blood in muscles and viscera, thus reducing blood pressure and cardiac load. CMT on cervical region improves blood supply to cerebrum. CMT maneuvers can promote lymphatic return, facilitating absorption of exudate.
7. The effects on blood constituents:
After CMT treatment, the blood constituents were changed with an increase in the amount of white blood cells of which the ratio of lymphocyrtes to neutrophils was also enhanced, and that the phagocytic function of white blood cell was strengthened, the complement titer in serum enhanced, and the amount of red blood cells and platelet increased. CMT effects on blood catecholamine and endorphin have also been presented, which revealed that CMT treatment could increase the content of morphine-like substance in the blood.
8. Other effects:
Deepen respiration through direct stimulation to the chest wall or indirect action of nerve reflex. CMT on the abdomen or over the whole body may increase oxygen demand and enhance excretion of carbon dioxide.
Key Words: Chinese manipulative therapy, modern science viewing